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Posts published in “Mental Health”

Brain Functions and Mental Illness

Mental health issues, ranging from anxiety disorders and depression to more severe conditions like PTSD and ADHD, can significantly impact both emotional and physical well-being. These mental illnesses, exacerbated for many by the COVID-19 pandemic, can lead to a range of symptoms from mild irritability to severe depression and suicidal thoughts, affecting one’s social and emotional functioning. Mental health disorders not only influence mood and behavior but can also physically alter the brain and disrupt its chemical processes.

Understanding the Neurological Underpinnings

Neuroanatomy and Brain Structure

Our brain’s anatomy is complex, consisting of the cerebral cortex, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and limbic system, among other components. Each plays a pivotal role in our cognitive functions. The cerebral cortex is the outer layer of our brains, responsible for complex thought processes. The prefrontal cortex governs decision-making and social behaviour. Memory formation and spatial navigation are functions of the hippocampus, while the amygdala is integral for processing emotions. The limbic system facilitates both emotional responses and memory. Additionally, the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, relays messages to and from the brain via neurons.

Our brain’s structure also comprises ventricles, which are cavities filled with cerebrospinal fluid that help to protect the brain from injury and provide it with nutrients. Neuroimaging techniques, such as MRI and CT scans, are pivotal for visualising the brain’s anatomy and diagnosing potential issues.

  • Central Nervous System: Integral for processing and sending signals
  • Cerebral Cortex: Enables higher cognitive processes
  • Hippocampus: Central to memory and navigation
  • Prefrontal Cortex: Oversees complex behaviours and decision-making
  • Amygdala: Regulates emotions and fear responses
  • Limbic System: Emotion and memory centre
  • Ventricles: Cushion brain; circulate cerebrospinal fluid

Neurotransmitters and Signalling

Neuronal communication within our brain is largely dependent on neurotransmitters chemicals that transmit messages across synapses from one neuron to another. Three key neurotransmitters are serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. Serotonin is involved in mood regulation, appetite, and circadian rhythm. Dopamine influences reward and pleasure circuits but is also crucial for motor control, and deficits in its signalling are implicated in Parkinson’s disease. Norepinephrine acts as both a neurotransmitter and a hormone, affecting attention, response actions, and heart rate.

These neurotransmitters bind to specific receptors on the neurons, initiating cellular changes that propagate electrical signals throughout the brain. This signalling is the basis of all brain functions, from reflexes to abstract thinking.

  • Neurons: Cells that transmit neural signals
  • Neurotransmitter: Chemical messengers facilitating communication
  • Serotonin: Mood, appetite, sleep
  • Dopamine: Reward, pleasure, motor function
  • Norepinephrine: Attention, response, heart rate

Understanding Mental Health Disorders

Mental health disorders encompass a broad range of conditions that affect mood, thinking, and behaviour. Our comprehension of these illnesses is vital to develop effective treatments and provide support to those affected.

Depression and Anxiety Disorders

Depression and anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health issues we encounter. Depression is characterised by persistent feelings of sadness and a lack of interest or pleasure in activities, severely impacting daily life.

  • Major Depressive Disorder: Features a prolonged period of sadness or a lack of motivation.
  • Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD): Involves excessive worry about a variety of events, often without a specific cause.
  • Panic Disorder: Features recurrent panic attacks that can cause intense fear and physical symptoms.
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): Manifests through unwanted, recurring thoughts and repetitive behaviours.

Trauma-Related and Stressor-Related Disorders

Trauma and stress play significant roles in some mental health disorders. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is triggered by witnessing or experiencing a traumatic event, with symptoms including flashbacks, severe anxiety, and uncontrollable thoughts about the incident.

  • PTSD: Symptoms may include nightmares, emotional numbness, and heightened reactivity to stimuli.
  • Adjustment Disorders: Caused by an inability to adjust to or cope with a significant life change or stressor.

Psychotic Disorders and Schizophrenia

Psychotic disorders are characterised by an altered perception of reality, which may include hallucinations and delusions. Schizophrenia is a long-term mental health condition that disrupts thought processes, perceptions of reality, emotion, and behaviour.

  • Hallucinations: Involve seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not present.
  • Delusions: Strongly held beliefs with no basis in reality.

Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Neurodevelopmental disorders begin in the developmental period and can cause lifelong challenges. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) present a range of conditions that affect communication, social interaction, and behaviour.

  • Autism Spectrum Disorders: Include challenges with social interaction and repetitive behaviours or interests.
  • Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Characterised by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsiveness.

By understanding these disorders, we are better equipped to recognise, diagnose, and treat mental health challenges, enhancing the quality of life for those affected.

Clinical Assessment and Diagnosis

In this section, we discuss the methods involved in assessing mental health and diagnosing psychiatric disorders, focusing on psychiatric evaluations and the incorporation of neuroimaging and biomarkers.

Psychiatric Evaluation and Symptoms

During psychiatric evaluation, we gather a comprehensive history and symptomatology that informs diagnosis and treatment planning. We listen to patients describe their symptoms, which may include experiences of anxiety, depression, mood swings, and thought disturbances. Utilising various assessment tools and clinical interviews, we classify these symptoms according to standardised criteria, such as those outlined in the DSM-5 or ICD-10.

Common Symptoms Evaluated Include:

  • Mood and affect
  • Thought patterns
  • Behavioural disturbances
  • Cognitive functions
  • Social and occupational functioning

It is crucial to differentiate between symptoms to accurately diagnose psychiatric disorders.

Role of Neuroimaging and Biomarkers

Neuroimaging techniques such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) help us in understanding brain activity in relation to mental illness. These imaging results can sometimes reveal patterns that distinguish between different psychiatric conditions. However, it’s important to note that neuroimaging is not routinely used for diagnosis in clinical practice, but mainly in research settings.

Neuroimaging Contributions:

  • fMRI: assists in observing blood flow, indicating areas of activity. ○ Structural MRI: provides details on brain anatomy.

Simultaneously, recent advances suggest that biomarkers from blood tests might one day aid in psychiatric diagnoses. Biomarkers are biological characteristics that can be measured and evaluated as indicators of normal or pathological processes.

Potential Biomarkers:

  • Inflammatory markers
  •  Hormonal levels
  • Neurotrophic factors

While these developments are promising, current mainstream diagnosis primarily relies on symptomatology and clinical evaluation rather than on neuroimaging and biomarkers.

Treatment Strategies for Mental Illness

We understand that treating mental illness effectively requires a multifaceted approach encompassing pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, and preventive strategies. Here, we outline the current practices aimed at improving the quality of life for individuals living with mental health concerns.

Pharmacotherapy and Medication

When we discuss pharmacotherapy, we’re referring to the use of medication as a primary treatment for mental illness. Different classes of drugs work by altering the brain’s chemistry to reduce symptoms and improve functioning. For instance:

  • Antidepressants such as SSRIs and SNRIs help manage symptoms of depression and anxiety by influencing neurotransmitters like serotonin and norepinephrine.
  • Mood Stabilisers like lithium are often prescribed for bipolar disorder, which help to level the highs of mania and the lows of depression.
  • Antipsychotics address psychotic symptoms, including hallucinations and delusions, by affecting dopamine levels.
  • Anxiolytics such as benzodiazepines can alleviate anxiety by enhancing GABA activity, although they are generally recommended for short-term use due to their addictive potential.
Medications Classifications Common Use


SSRIs, SNRIs Antidepressants Depression, Anxiety
Lithium Mood Stabiliser Bipolar Disorder
Antipsychotics Psychotic


Benzodiazepine s Anxiolytics Acute Anxiety

Psychotherapy and Rehabilitation

Psychotherapy encompasses a variety of therapeutic techniques to improve mental health.

Evidence-based psychotherapies like Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) and Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT) assist individuals in better understanding their thoughts, emotions, and behaviours, paving the way for positive change. Rehabilitation services may also be integrated, offering vocational support and social skills training to enhance daily functioning and social integration.

  • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT): A structured approach that helps individuals identify and challenge unhelpful thinking patterns.
  • Dialectical Behaviour Therapy (DBT): Combines CBT techniques with mindfulness practices, especially beneficial for those with borderline personality disorder.

Preventive Measures and Lifestyle

Lastly, prevention plays a critical role in public health. We advocate for:

  • Early Intervention: Addressing symptoms early can prevent the progression of mental illness.
  • Public Education: Enhancing the public’s understanding of mental illness promotes empathy and reduces stigma.
  • Healthy Lifestyle Choices: Regular exercise, balanced nutrition, and adequate sleep are fundamental in maintaining mental health and mitigating symptoms.

In conjunction, these treatment strategies help support those affected by mental illness, fostering an environment where recovery is facilitated and the overall quality of life is enhanced.

Impact and Management of Mental Illness

Mental illness significantly affects our public health, productivity, and individuals’ quality of life. Our approach to management crucially involves epidemiological understanding and robust social support systems.

Public Health and Epidemiology

Epidemiology offers us crucial insights into the prevalence, risk factors, and impact of mental illness on society. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) provides us with data that aids in the formulation of public health policies and targeted interventions. For example, depression can lead to a marked disability, hindering a person’s functioning and productivity. By understanding these patterns, we can allocate resources effectively to where they are most needed.

  • Depression: Incidence of 3.8% globally (NIMH)
  • Anxiety: Affects ~6.8 million adults in the UK
  • Bipolar Disorder: Lifetime prevalence of up to 1.6%

Social Support and Healthcare Services

Interconnected support systems ensure that individuals with mental illness receive the help they need. Social workers play an integral role in this, working tirelessly to connect patients with healthcare services and community resources that can enhance their quality of life. Collaborative care models and integrated services can improve outcomes significantly for those affected, facilitating their reintegration into society and workforce.

  • Social Workers: Key in aiding >650,000 individuals annually (UK Data)
  • Healthcare Services: Provide comprehensive treatment plans
  • Community Resources: Vital in supporting daily living and social inclusion

Frequently Asked Questions

In this section, we address common enquiries regarding the brain’s role in mental illness and the various psychological and societal factors that influence mental health.

How Do Differences In The Brain Contribute To Mental Illness?

Variations in brain structure and chemistry can predispose individuals to a range of mental health conditions. For instance, irregularities in neurotransmitter systems are often implicated in the development of mood disorders, such as depression and bipolar disorder.

In What Ways Can The Brain Adapt To Manage Mental Health Conditions?

Our brains possess a remarkable capacity for neuroplasticity, which allows them to rewire and adapt in response to therapies and life changes. This adaptability can facilitate the management of symptoms and improve coping strategies for those with mental health conditions.

What Psychological Factors Are Implicated In The Development Of Mental Disorders?

Psychological factors such as prolonged stress, trauma, and adverse childhood experiences can significantly contribute to the development of mental illnesses. These factors can interact with genetic predispositions and exacerbate symptoms.

Which Areas Of The Brain Are Most Closely Linked With Mental Health Regulation?

Key brain regions involved in regulating mental health include the prefrontal cortex, which is responsible for decision-making and emotion regulation, and the amygdala, which plays a critical role in processing emotions and fear.

What Are The Most Challenging Mental Illnesses To Manage In Daily Life?

Mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, severe depression, and persistent anxiety disorders can be particularly challenging to manage daily due to their pervasive symptoms, which may include disruptions in cognition, mood, and behaviour.

How Are People With Severe Mental Health Issues Supported Within Society?

Individuals with severe mental health conditions receive support through a combination of healthcare services, medication, therapy, community initiatives, and legal protections designed to safeguard their rights and promote social inclusion.

About the Author

Gareth Carter is a qualified interventionist and addiction counselor in the UK and South Africa, known for his dedication to helping people overcome addiction and supporting their journey to recovery. He is also a passionate recovery advocate who enjoys traveling, experiencing different cultures, connecting with nature, and capturing his experiences through photography.

Since its inception in 2008, WeDoRecover has been an independent advisory service, guiding individuals and families to appropriate addiction care and facilitating treatment journeys in top clinics across the UK, South Africa, and Thailand. Merging with Changes Drug and Alcohol Rehab in Johannesburg in 2019, the organization continues to offer high-quality, individualized addiction treatment, accepting both South African medical aid and international health insurance to ensure accessible care.

Exploring the Best Chinese Tui Na Spas and Therapists in the UK

Introducing the Remarkable World of Tui Na Massage

The holistic realm of wellness and therapy has been gracefully unfurled through the miraculous touch of Chinese Tui Na massage. A luxurious yet profoundly therapeutic ancient Chinese massage technique, Tui Na opens doors to a universe of relaxation, pain relief, and overall well-being. The UK has been captivated by this extraordinary massage form, witnessing a blossoming proliferation of exquisite Tui Na spas and adept therapists who exemplify the art with utmost precision and care.

Delving Deep into the Therapeutic Brilliance of Tui Na

Tui Na isn’t merely a massage; it’s a harmonious symphony of healing that reverberates through the body and soul. Its therapeutic essence lies in its ability to align the body’s energies, infusing a sensation of rejuvenating tranquility. For those seeking an oasis of relaxation amidst life’s tumultuous storms, Tui Na emerges as a beacon of restorative solace.

Pain relief is a powerful testament to Tui Na’s transformative impact. The cultivated hands of professional therapists deftly navigate through the body’s landscapes, alleviating pain with a rhythmic dance of pressure and manipulation. This sophisticated interplay not only eases the body’s aches but also nurtures the spirit’s serenity, encouraging a holistic renaissance of vibrant health.

The UK’s Premier Destinations for Tui Na Excellence

In the enchanting realms of the UK, where tradition and modernity beautifully entwine, a plethora of Tui Na spas and therapists await your discovery. Eager to unveil the wonders of Tui Na, Massages Me elegantly curates a sublime selection of the finest spas and Chinese massage places near you in the UK, ensuring your journey towards well-being is nothing short of magnificent.

Embracing the Convenience of Mobile Massage Therapists

Innovation and accessibility have lovingly embraced the world of massage therapy in the UK. The evolution of mobile massage therapists across the UK signifies a revolutionary era where unparalleled massage experiences gracefully traverse the thresholds of your home. The modern individual, adorned with the flexibility of choice, can now indulge in personalized massage sessions curated to their unique preferences and needs. Explore the myriad of mobile massage possibilities, allowing the essence of therapeutic brilliance to illuminate your space with comfort and ease.

Navigating Your Journey with Massages Me

Your voyage through the realms of Tui Na and diverse massage styles is lovingly guided by Massages Me. As your trusted companion in wellness exploration, Massages Me facilitates a delightful passage through the UK’s most exquisite Tui Na therapies and accomplished therapists. Book a massage at Massages Me today, and allow us to be the architects of your transformative journey towards healing, relaxation, and radiant well-being.

In the hands of Massages Me, your quest for the extraordinary is masterfully realized, ensuring that each therapeutic encounter is a masterpiece of rejuvenation and bliss. Massages Me is not just a platform; it’s a sanctuary where the treasures of Tui Na and various massage arts are passionately celebrated and generously shared with those in pursuit of life’s most beautiful harmonies.

What to Do If You’re Struggling with Your Mental Health

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 970 million people across the world were living with a mental health disorder in 2019, including anxiety and depression. Many make the mistake of ignoring an issue, believing their mood will improve in time, or they might feel unable to admit to themselves and others that they have a mental health issue.

Yet, help is available in many forms to help you overcome a condition and live a happier, fuller life. Find out what to do if you are struggling with your mental health.

Speak to a Doctor

You likely don’t think twice about making an appointment with a GP when you feel under the weather, are worried about your physical health, or sustain an injury. However, you might avoid visiting a doctor when you feel low, stressed, and overwhelmed, to name a few mental health issues. Yet, your mental health is just as important as your physical health, and you shouldn’t ignore it.

If you need help now but are worried about waiting a long time for an appointment, same-day medical attention is available. For instance, you can find a GP at hand to discuss your mental health problems, receive a diagnosis, and devise the best treatment plan for you, such as prescription medication and talk therapies.

Visit a Therapist

A GP may recommend visiting a qualified therapist for specific therapies, which could help you overcome or manage a mental health disorder.

For example, you could benefit from:

Confide in a Loved One

It might feel helpful to talk to a trusted loved one about how you are feeling. Discussing your emotions could lift a weight off your shoulders, and your friend or relative could help put your feelings into perspective. What’s more, they might share a personal story that might make you feel less alone with your mental health battles, and it may encourage you to seek the medical help you need to move on from a disorder. A loved one wouldn’t want you to struggle in silence, which is why you shouldn’t hesitate to confide in someone you trust.

Call a Mental Health Charity or Supportive Organisation

Many charities and organizations are available to provide support and help you manage your emotions and overcome any personal challenges. For example, if you need someone to talk to, you could contact one of the many helplines and listening services available. Also, various organizations might be more than happy to provide housing support and employment opportunities for those living with a mental health disorder.

Asking for help and talking about your emotions might not feel easy at first, but it could be the first step toward a happier, healthier life. Don’t hesitate to schedule an appointment with a GP, talk to a therapist, call a helpline, or confide in a trusted loved one.

Mental Health Therapists: Finding The Right One For You

Consider The Qualifications And Professional Approach

You’ve probably read many interesting stories about mental health issues among people if you’re a regular reader. Contact the Denver therapist if you or someone you know needs help with a mental disorder and is looking for a reputable mental health treatment facility. At the time of admission, our team of doctors performs a thorough evaluation to identify the presence of any mental illnesses. Based on the patient’s needs and medical history, they then adopt the mental health treatment plan to address the underlying disorders. Qualified professionals who are mental health therapists have the necessary knowledge and skills to help people with mental health problems. You should also consider the qualifications and professional approach of any mental health professional you are considering. These are just a few of the important factors you should consider when searching for someone to help with your mental health issues.

Different Therapists Have Different Experiences

You will need to have a proven track record and a good reputation in order to resolve similar issues. Different mental health therapists may have different experiences in dealing with patients. This leads to different expertise in different cases. You should only choose someone who has experience in treating similar mental conditions to yours. You should also find out how the professionals treat your condition, such as what methods are used and how often appointments are scheduled. You should also find out how much the fee is per session and whether it is a package. This will allow you to plan financially and determine if the fee for a particular mental therapist is within your financial budget.

MyHealth1st | Finding a Psychologist that's right for you

You must remember that you’re not looking for someone to confide in, so it is important to avoid choosing someone who is too friendly. You need someone who can set boundaries in the patient-therapist relationship. You need to find someone who can help you with your condition, not just someone who is able to talk about it. Results are what you need and you must be determined about this.

Your Preferences Determine The Ideal Mental Health Therapist

If you’ve chosen a mental health professional to help you, be open-minded and attentive during your first visit. You don’t have to be uncomfortable with your therapist to continue a session. If you feel uncomfortable with your current mental health therapist, it might be a good idea to search for another. Your preference will determine the ideal mental health therapist for you. You don’t have to make the wrong choice. You always have the possibility to change your mind. You are doing all this to ensure that your mental health is at its best.

10 Sure Signs You Need To See A Therapist (And How To Find The Right One)

The Importance Of Choosing The Right Mental Health Therapist

It may seem daunting to consider hiring a mental health therapist. However, it is actually quite simple. When choosing a mental health therapist, you should remember that they must not only be trained properly. You need to ensure that they have the right temperament and therapeutic focus in order to help you overcome any difficulties you may be facing. Mental health professionals are trained to help you harness the power of your mind and overcome any obstacles in your life. Before you begin searching for a mental disorder specialist, you need to determine which type of analyst you are most comfortable with. Consider whether you have preferences about sex, age, or race. You need to choose someone you feel comfortable with so your mind can be at ease once the mental therapist starts.

Find out if the mental therapist is comfortable with you. You will only reap the benefits of professional help and care if you establish a real rapport with them.

What Does Alcohol Do To The Brain?

Alcohol – who doesn’t drink it. A name day toast, a glass of champagne on New Year’s Eve or a cold beer on a hot day 🙂 But do you know what it may be like? Our body treats the elimination of alcohol as a fight against an enemy, and alcohol also acts as an insidious opponent in this process. The most important goal for him is to neutralize the command center – our brain. After the first drink, the worries disappear and we feel nice and pleasant, but after the next drink we experience difficulties in walking, blurred vision, slurred speech, slower reaction time. All of these symptoms are caused by a disturbance in the activity of neurotransmitters such as GABA, glutamate, serotonin and dopamine.

Alcohol has been consumed by people practically since the dawn of time, fulfilling various functions. Initially, it served as a pain and fatigue reliever. Later it was used for relaxation purposes and finally became a contact aid. Perhaps surprisingly, alcohol kills more people than all other drugs (excluding nicotine) combined. Among the narcotic drugs, it’s our biggest killer.

Are you Addicted to Alcohol? Find help in Empowered Recovery Center

Alcohol Versus The Body

Ethanol (C2H5OH) is the basic ingredient of any drink. In the digestive tract, alcohol passes through the stomach walls and small intestine into the bloodstream. Carried with blood, it reaches numerous organs and tissues. A small part of it leaves the body in the form in which it got there (about 2% is excreted in the urine, 2% in the exhaled air). The liver is the main organ in the body to break down alcohol, although it does so very slowly (it takes about an hour to break down each unit of an alcoholic drink). A small amount of alcohol is metabolized in the stomach with the participation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH).

Read more: Snorting Tramadol – Dangers and side effects

The biochemical processing of ethyl alcohol in hepatic cells is very complex. Metabolic changes occur through two pathways involving three enzymes located in different cell structures.

The First Trail Consists Of Two Stages:

The first, catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), takes place in the cytoplasm:

ethanol + NAD + -> acetaldehyde + NADH + H +

The second, catalyzed by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), takes place in the mitochondrion:

acetaldehyde + NAD + + H2O -> acetate + NADH + H +

Alcohol Use After Brain Injury - San Diego Brain Injury Foundation

The second pathway is the Microsomal Ethanol-Oxidizing System (MEOS) located in the endoplasmic reticulum.

The main product of alcohol oxidation is acetaldehyde. It shows 10 times higher toxicity than ethanol. It is a very reactive compound, forming covalent bonds with many important functional groups of proteins, as a result of which their basic functions are damaged. Acetic acid is formed from oxidized acetaldehyde, which when released into the bloodstream, is broken down into CO2 and H2O.

Why Is Alcohol Considered A Depressant?

The answer is simple: it affects two key neurotransmitters – GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) and glutamate, reducing overall levels of brain activity.

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. It can bind to two receptors, GABAA and GABAB. The binding of GABA to the GABAA receptor causes the opening of ion channels for chloride ions, causing hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, extinction of action potentials and a reduction in the influx of calcium ions into the cell. It is this receptor that alcohol interacts with to increase the GABA effect. As a consequence, more chloride ions pass into the cell. However, this is not a general mechanism, as it only happens when you take a large dose of alcohol at a time.

On the other hand, in chronic alcohol users, both GABA and alcohol have a lower effect on GABAA receptors. As a result, less Cl- ions flows in and neurons are more activated, which can be the basis of anxiety and convulsions in people addicted to alcohol and hunger. GABAA receptors are widely present throughout the brain, but many have been found, for example, in the hippocampus, which is a part of the brain important for remembering and cognition.



Brain is the house of operations for your body, everything you do from talking to moving from one place to another to solving problems is tackled by your brain.

If a person’s brain is damaged due to illness, genes or any traumatic injury their speech, memory, movement and personality gets shaken due to that. Here we are compromising a list of 5 most common brain diseases or disorders:

1. Brain Tumours:

A brain tumor is a kind of mass or collection of abnormal cells that get accumulated in your brain. There are two kinds of brain tumours: cancerous and noncancerous,  both of these can be life-threatening. Brain tumors can be a result of genes, chemical exposure and exposure to excessive radiation.

Brain tumors can cause symptoms like vomiting, confusion, seizures, blurred vision, clumsiness, dizziness, hand tremors, loss of bladder control, difficulty in walking, muscle weakness and changes in the ability to hear, speak, smell and taste.

Brain tumours can be easily diagnosed with the help of CT scan, MRI scan, x-rays, biopsies and angiography. Most common treatment option for brain tumours is surgery, in which the tumour is removed without causing any damage to healthy parts of the brain. Neurologist in Karachi can guide you better if there are any other treatment options for brain tumors.

2. Alzheimer’s Disease:

Alzheimer’s is a type of brain disease that affects memory, behaviour and thinking capabilities in human beings. It is also known as a progressive form of dementia.

Some common symptoms of Alzheimer’s are trouble in speaking and writing, memory loss, trouble concentrating, behavioural and personality changes, trouble with day to day tasks and decreased problem solving capabilities.

Most people who get Alzheimer’s are 65 years of age or older than that, which means you are more at risk of getting Alzheimer’s if you are above 65. Similarly if you have a direct family member who is affected by the disease or you have the disease in your genes you are most likely to get it.

There is no cure to Alzheimer’s disease but some treatments can slow down the progression of the disease.


What Are the Actual Warning Signs of a Brain Tumor? – Health Essentials  from Cleveland Clinic

3. Parkinson’s Disease:

Parkinson’s is a brain disease that affects certain nerve cells in your brain, by killing them or impairing them. Under normal circumstances these nerve cells produce an important chemical known as dopamine which controls the movement of your body. Hence when a person gets affected by Parkinson’s the movement of their body starts becoming abnormal.

Most common symptoms of Parkinson are uncontrollable shaking in different parts of the body, speaking difficulties, depression, fatigue, memory problems and behavioural changes.

According to studies men have a 50% more chance to get Parkinson‘s than women.

There are no blood tests or scans that can help in diagnosing Parkinson’s disease. However the diagnosis is based on a person’s neurological examination and medical history. Uptill now there is no cure for Parkinson’s disease but certain medicines and surgical treatment can be helpful in delaying or reducing the symptoms.

4. Epilepsy:

Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes seizures, these seizures may be provoked or unprovoked and they keep on recurring. There are two main types of seizures: Partial or focal seizures that impact only one part of the brain and Generalised seizures that affect the entire brain.

Common symptoms in partial seizures are dizziness, twitching in the limbs, and loss of taste, smell, sight, touch and hearing.

In generalised seizures symptoms look like: repetitive movement, muscle stiffness, loss of muscle control, jerky muscle movements, spontaneous twitching in the legs and arms, shaking, biting of the tongue, unconsciousness, loss of bladder and bowel control.

Epilepsy can be caused by a stroke, very high fever, traumatic brain injuries, dementia, lack of oxygen supply to the brain, brain tumour, vascular diseases, brain malformation and as a result of AIDS or meningitis.

Epilepsy can be diagnosed with the help of Electroencephalogram EEG and other imaging tests like: CT scan and MRI.

Epilepsy can be treated with the help of anticonvulsant or antiseizure drugs, by placing a nerve stimulator in your chest, or by getting the area of the brain that causes seizures removed with the help of a surgery.

5. Dementia:

Dementia is a brain disease that causes a decline in a person’s cognitive functions like thinking, speaking, hearing and problem-solving.

Dementia itself is not a disease, it is a result of an injury or some other disease. There are different kinds of dementia: some of them are progressive while others are treatable and even reversible.

The most common symptoms of dementia are memory loss, difficulty in completing day to day tasks, being repetitive, disorientation, trouble communicating, misplacing things, changes in the personality, mood swings, and decreased interest in initiating something.

Dementia is caused by Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, brain tumour, side-effects from medication, structural brain disorders, deficiency of vitamin B12, and liver and kidney disorders.

Dementia can be diagnosed with the help of a physical exam, by reviewing medical history, or by performing a blood test.

Dementia can be treated with the help of medications and by modifying the environment of the patient or by doing occupational therapy. To explore other treatment options you can visit Neurologist in Lahore.